The four-man team from Edinburgh beat Oxford University’s St Edmund Hall by 155 points to 140.
The University of Edinburgh team is the first from Scotland to win since 1984 and the first non-Oxbridge finalist in six years.
Team captain Max Fitz-James hailed his team after winning the coveted prize.
Speaking to BBC Scotland’s The Nine, he said: “The main secret is to be good as a team and that came in the selection process; they really made an effort to find people who had a complementary basis of knowledge so it wasn’t just down to one person, we did it as a team.
“The best training was watching past episodes and doing it together as a team, so we would get together every Monday and watch past episodes, pause and try and answer the questions before the team.
“This is the third year in a row that Edinburgh reached the semi-finals so we were very pleased we got one further than that, and even more pleased when we finally lifted the trophy.”
The Edinburgh team, which had a Greyfriars Bobby mascot, was made up of Mr Fitz-James, Matt Booth, Marco Malusa and Robbie Campbell Hewson.
University of Edinburgh principal, Prof Peter Mathieson, said: “I would like to send my personal congratulations to the University of Edinburgh team for this fantastic achievement.
“The standards set in University Challenge are incredibly high.
“It’s a huge tribute to the students involved to have beaten off very tough competition from some of the sharpest minds in UK universities and won the final.
“University Challenge is a real television institution and everyone associated with the University should be justifiably proud of what the team has achieved.”